The new Central Committee of the National Guard, now dominated by radicals, decided to put the cannons in parks in the working-class neighborhoods of Belleville, Buttes-Chaumont and Montmartre, to keep them away from the regular army and to defend the city against any attack by the national government. Five national guardsmen were captured by the regulars; two were Army deserters and two were caught with their weapons in their hands. They installed seventy-two 120- and 150-mm artillery pieces in the forts around Paris and on 5 January began to bombard the city day and night. In the presence of two battalions of the National Guard and the leaders of the Commune, a band played "La Marseillaise" and the "Chant du Départ". Ces redoutes improvisées offraient toutefois des obstacles très sérieux car elles permirent aux troupes allemandes, à chaque attaque des assiégés, d'attendre les renforts grâce à des communications bien établies avec la pose instantanée du télégraphe militaire. Believing that their struggle against patriarchy[citation needed] could only be pursued through a global struggle against capitalism, the association demanded gender and wage equality, the right of divorce for women, the right to secular education, and professional education for girls. Bismarck et Moltke ont décidé d'éviter d'exposer leurs troupes dans un combat de rues. "[77], The Richelieu library of the Louvre, connected to the Tuileries, was also set on fire and entirely destroyed. La Commune de Paris, au jour le jour, 1871, 19 mars-28 mai by Reclus, Élie, 1827-1904. However, this page is dedicated to the 1871 historical period Commune de Paris, hereafter called Commune for the sake of simplicity. sur revueconflits.com. The Commune began by establishing nine commissions, similar to those of the National Assembly, to manage the affairs of Paris. Avec la capitulation de Sedan, les armées prussiennes et leurs alliés déferlent sur le Nord de la France et vont mettre le siège devant Paris. "The municipal council of Paris," Lissagaray continued, "paid for the burial of seventeen thousand bodies; but a large number of persons were killed or cremated outside of Paris." On the same day, having had little success fighting the army, units of national guardsmen began to take revenge by burning public buildings symbolising the government. I am quite upset, or rather out of heart. The other point of disagreement was the anti-authoritarian socialists' opposition to the Communist conception of conquest of power and of a temporary transitional state: the anarchists were in favour of general strike and immediate dismantlement of the state through the constitution of decentralised workers' councils, as those seen in the Commune. Some Communards wanted to appropriate the bank's reserves to fund social projects, but Jourde resisted, explaining that without the gold reserves the currency would collapse and all the money of the Commune would be worthless. MacMahon replied, "Ah, well, that's different. Mais il se mit à geler et ces sphères restèrent bloquées dans les glaces. To command the new army, Thiers chose Patrice MacMahon, who had won fame fighting the Austrians in Italy under Napoleon III, and who had been seriously wounded at the Battle of Sedan. [9], During the war and the siege of Paris, various members of the middle- and upper-classes departed the city; at the same time there was an influx of refugees from parts of France occupied by the Germans. A small group of revolutionary national guardsmen were already there, and there was a brief confrontation between the brigade led by General Claude Lecomte, and the National Guard; one guardsman, named Turpin, was shot dead. A resolution was also passed, after a long debate, that the deliberations of the Council were to be secret, since the Commune was effectively at war with the government in Versailles and should not make its intentions known to the enemy. The National Guard. "[13] A coup was attempted in early 1870, but tensions eased significantly after the plebiscite in May. She worked as a vivandiére with the Enfants Perdus. Because of the implications carried by its name, many members of the Commune opposed the Committee of Public Safety's creation. Caricatures from the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the Paris Commune 4 eBLJ 2005, Article 5 La menagerie impérialeis a series of cartoons with large heads on small bodies.Napoleon is depicted as a vulture, his wife as a grue (‘crane’ but also slang for ‘prostitute’), their son as a canary, the emperor’s mistress Marguerite Bellanger as a cat, his cousin, Prince Napoleon, The first serious fighting took place on the afternoon of the 22nd, an artillery duel between regular army batteries on the Quai d'Orsay and the Madeleine, and National Guard batteries on the terrace of the Tuileries Palace. "We are caught between two bands of crazy people," Clemenceau complained, "those sitting in Versailles and those in Paris. En effet, c'est du plateau de Châtillon que les Prussiens installeront leur grosse artillerie, qui foudroiera les forts et la capitale. [80], At two in the morning on 24 May, Brunel and his men went to the Hotel de Ville, which was still the headquarters of the Commune and of its chief executive, Delescluze. Les armées allemandes obtiendront de Thiers une occupation symbolique des Champs-Élysées du 1er au 3 mars. Ten years ago, for the 140 th anniversary of the Commune, the Mairie de Paris (Paris Town Hall) held two months of exhibitions and theatrical productions under the porte-manteau of “1871 – Paris… They demand the overthrow of the government and the establishment of a Commune. Between the end of April and 20 May, the number of trained artillerymen fell from 5,445 to 2,340. Eye-witness accounts quoted in 'Paris under Siege' by Joanna Richardson p.197 (see bibliography), sfn error: no target: CITEREFCastries1983 (. Mais il est partagé entre ceux qui veulent continuer la guerre (Gambetta) et ceux qui veulent la paix (Adolphe Thiers). [106] On the other hand, he was critical of the Commune but sympathetic to the Communards. Semaine sanglante (Bloody Week) was the final assault by the French Armed Forces that ended the Paris Commune. Ahead of the elections, the Central Committee and the leaders of the International gave out their lists of candidates, mostly belonging to the extreme left. He recruited officers with military experience, particularly Polish officers who had fled to France in 1863, after Russians crushed the January Uprising; they played a prominent role in the last days of the Commune. MacMahon responded, "I don't know what that estimate is based upon; it seems exaggerated to me. The ministers and officials of the Bolshevik government were given the title Commissar, which was borrowed directly from the Commissaires of the Commune. 1870-1871: Franco-Prussian war. An army engineer crossed the moat and inspected the empty fortifications, and immediately telegraphed the news to Marshal MacMahon, who was with Thiers at Fort Mont-Valérien. On 2 April, soon after the Commune was established, it voted a decree accusing the Catholic Church of "complicity in the crimes of the monarchy." Revolutionary factions included Proudhonists (an early form of moderate anarchism), members of the international socialists, Blanquists, and more libertarian republicans. When he came back to Paris, he was given the rank of colonel by the Central Committee of the National Guard, and the command of Fort Issy on 13 April. General Trochu received reports from the prefect of Paris that agitation against the government and military leaders was increasing in the political clubs and in the National Guard of the working-class neighbourhoods of Belleville, La Chapelle, Montmartre, and Gros-Caillou. Il y a au total en permanence plus de 400 000 hommes disponibles pour défendre Paris, mais moins d'un quart d'entre eux ont une formation militaire. The guardsmen led by Paul Brunel, one of the original leaders of the Commune, took cans of oil and set fire to buildings near the Rue Royale and the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. The fort's garrison was commanded by Leon Megy, a former mechanic and a militant Blanquist, who had been sentenced to 20 years hard labour for killing a policeman. Prisoners of war would be brought before a jury, which would decide if they would be released or held as hostages. Nine of the winners were Blanquists (some of whom were also from the International); twenty-five, including Delescluze and Pyat, classified themselves as "Independent Revolutionaries"; about fifteen were from the International; the rest were from a variety of radical groups. Lissagaray also claimed that the artillery fire by the French army was responsible for probably half of the fires that consumed the city during the Bloody Week. [42] Their participation included building barricades and caring for wounded fighters. The story of the Siege of Paris begins during the Franco-Prussian war which broke out in July of 1870. "[111] George Woodcock manifests that "a notable contribution to the activities of the Commune and particularly to the organization of public services was made by members of various anarchist factions, including the mutualists Courbet, Longuet, and Vermorel, the libertarian collectivists Varlin, Malon, and Lefrangais, and the bakuninists Elie and Elisée Reclus and Louise Michel. Archbishop Darboy and five other hostages were promptly taken out into the courtyard of the prison, lined up against the wall, and shot. "[109] But on 1 June, when the fighting was over, his tone had changed, "The court martials are still meeting and the summary executions continue, less numerous, it's true. L'Assemblée nationale s'installe à Versailles pour éviter la pression de la Garde mobile parisienne en état de quasi-insurrection. The procession of hostages was joined by a large and furious crowd of national guardsmen and civilians who insulted, spat upon, and struck the hostages. When the voting was finished, 233,000 Parisians had voted, out of 485,000 registered voters, or forty-eight percent. Secondly, he thought their "excessive magnanimity" had prevented them from "destroying" the class enemy. The collapse of France in 1870 had an overwhelming impact - on Paris, on France and on the rest of the world. General Lecomte and the officers of his staff were seized by the guardsmen and his mutinous soldiers and taken to the local headquarters of the National Guard at the ballroom of the Chateau-Rouge. As soon as he heard the news of the uprising, he made his way to the railway station, where national guardsmen were already stopping and checking the identity of departing passengers. The trial of Gustave Cluseret, the former commander, was still going on at the Commune when they received the message from General Dombrowski that the army was inside the city. La Commune de Paris est une période insurrectionnelle de l'histoire de Paris qui dura un peu plus de deux mois, du 18 mars 1871 à la « Semaine sanglante » du 21 au 28 mai 1871. D'autre part, un grand nombre de Gardes nationaux, par leur âge, par leurs habitudes professionnelles, leurs aptitudes physiques, étaient incapables de se plier rapidement aux exercices nécessaires à des troupes qui doivent tenir campagne[4]. None of the other Communes lasted more than a few days, and most ended with little or no bloodshed. The report assessed information about Communard casualties only as "very incomplete". H ôtel de ville (City Hall) after 1871 fire. Le contenu de cette entrevue est restée secret. On 18 March, Thiers ordered a violent seizure of Paris, in collusion with the Prussian occupying force with whom they were collaborating to effect France's capitulation. The Committee of Public Safety issued its own decree: TO ARMS! [9], Of the two million people in Paris in 1869, according to the official census, there were about 500,000 industrial workers, or fifteen per cent of all the industrial workers in France, plus another 300,000–400,000 workers in other enterprises. The Paris Commune (French: Commune de Paris, pronounced [kɔmyn də paʁi]) was a radical socialist, disestablishmentarian, and revolutionary government that ruled Paris after the collapse of the Second French Empire. The garrison of one barricade, at Chaussee Clignancourt, was defended in part by a battalion of about thirty women, including Louise Michel, the celebrated "Red Virgin of Montmartre", who had already participated in many battles outside the city. In February, while the national government had been organising in Bordeaux, a new rival government had been organised in Paris. Engels echoed his partner, maintaining that the absence of a standing army, the self-policing of the "quarters", and other features meant that the Commune was no longer a "state" in the old, repressive sense of the term. The defenders resisted until the night of 7–8 May, when the remaining national guardsmen in the fort, unable to withstand further attacks, decided to withdraw. When the Thiers government left Paris in March, they did not have the time or the reliable soldiers to take the money with them. It seems to Paris that they're shooting everyone. The most popular of the pro-Commune newspapers was Le Cri du Peuple, published by Jules Valles, which was published from 22 February until 23 May. Ces privations affectent surtout les classes populaires, déjà réduites à la misère par l’arrêt des activités économiques. Go and Fight! Early in the morning of 18 March, two brigades of soldiers climbed the butte of Montmartre, where the largest collection of cannons, 170 in number, were located. "[68] On 19 May, while the Commune executive committee was meeting to judge the former military commander Cluseret for the loss of the Issy fortress, it received word that the forces of Marshal MacMahon were within the fortifications of Paris. On 26 March the new Parisian authorities conduct elections, electing a Commune of ninety members. L'espace entre les anciens murs des Fermiers généraux et l'enceinte est peu peuplé, laissant encore des exploitations agricoles entre les villages inclus dans l'enceinte.